Why Macedonian Dental Technicians
have switched from High Noble alloy Palador
® to non-precious Nickel-Chromium alloys for composite crowns
and bridges - Chromasit
® ?
author: Dr.Boban Fidanoski , RDT, DMD
April 30-th , 2002
High noble alloys are highly recommended for use in a dental lab due to it's high quality attributes . Usually these high noble (or high precious ) alloys are mixtures of gold, silver and palladium derivatives. Companies avoid use of pure Palladium because this precious metal is very expensive. His derivatives are cheaper solution .But in Former Yugoslavia (Macedonia was a part of that federation from 1918 to 1991), Dental Science has aspired towards high goals, and to work with high quality alloys was a matter of prestige.
The biggest pharmaceutical company in that time - "Galenika ICN" from Belgrade has introduced a very high noble alloy called PALADOR ® - a 100 % mixture of Gold, Silver and Palladium, with no other additives. It was the highest achievement that anyone could create, with excellent performances and attributes. Melting temperature for Palador was 800 degrees Celsius, and that was the only barrier for this alloy NOT to be in use as metal base for ceramic crowns and bridges . His use waslimited only for crowns and bridges covered with composite materials. Composite materials polymerize on 120 degrees Celsius ( lower than 900-melting temperature for Palador). On the other hand, to "fire" porcelain 950 degrees Celsius are needed, higher that Palador`s melting temperature, so if we use Palador as a base for Porcelain - it will melt during the porcelain firing process. Palador, like all other high high noble alloys has had an attributes of not absorbing gases from the atmosphere while melt,

Microscopic view of Palador structure

Click to enlarge!!


excellent stability in oral cavity, not connecting to oxygen from the air, not changing the color and toughness enough to sustain all the articulatory forces in mouth. Helped by state ruled economy, price of Palador, during the life of former Yugoslavia was very low - up to 1,5 Euros for a gram of Palador . Two grams of palador were needed for creation of a single crown .So, alloy expenses for one crown were 3 euros, a great price, concerning the total expenses .

Total material expenses for one crown were 7 euros . This is the upper limit in order to keep the final Macedonian price of a composite crown to 25-30 euros. Thirty Euros is a very small amount of money for one composite crown (concidering the World prices ), but that is the most that dentist could take out of the patient`s pocket due to pore financial situation in Macedonia . If we rise the expenses for materials (including alloys) , we will rise the final price of a crown , and we will not be profitable on the dental market . And that was what happened, what pulled PALADOR out of Macedonian dental market - INCREASE IN PRICE !! After the fall of Yugoslavian federation, a state based economy collapsed, and we all turned into a free market. There were no more state interventions and a lot of dental materials showed their true prices and they became not suitable for many dentists and dental technicians.The price of Palador was risen up from 1,5 euros per gram at the first wave into 3 and after a while the second lethal wave came and the price rised up to unbelievable 9 euros per gram !! Macedonian dentists and dental technicians had to adapt to the new situation and to find less expensive alloys . The only answer was : non-precious alloys, alloys based on Nickel and Chromium, the same ones used as metal base for porcelain crowns. Less quality, but less expensiv . Price of Nickel-Chromium alloys is very adequate for Macedonian dental needs . One gram of this non-precious alloy is only 20 cents (One fifth of an Euro) , so we will spend 40 cents for fabrication of a metal coping for a single crown. Forty cents comparing to Palador`s 9 euros is a big difference. This changes occurred in 90`s , since the beginning of Macedonia`s independence . After the first contact these non-precious alloys turned to be more qualitative in some points comparing to Palador - harder , more resistant to corrosion and color change . Hardiness (due to Carbon) is giving technicians a liberty do create even thinner base profiles and bigger surface reduction (on the contact areas between abutments and pontics) so that could be more space for composite or porcelain material and more maneuvering space for a technician to create a state of art dental restorations.So today knowing that ceramic products are taking over the market , and due to financial situation in Macedonia , with a big confidence we can say that Palador is a history .


From Dental dictionary :

ALLOY, DENTAL or METAL There are numerous alloys used in the making of dental restorations. The following alloy classifications, set by the American Dental Association Council on Dental Materials, will be helpful to you when reading this web page: High noble alloys have a noble metal content of 60% or greater. At least 40% must be gold. Noble alloys have a noble metal content of at least 25%. Predominantly base alloys are less than 25% noble metal. NOTE: Noble metals include gold, platinum and palladium. (Source: Identalloy® Council)



How Palador got his name ?:

Palador was a massive Class M planet, the third of eleven worlds of a binary star system in the globular star cluster M25. The planet was over 150,000 miles in diameter and had a gravity twice that of Earth. The surface consisted of 4 huge continents split by small, deep oceans. There were also 2 uninhabited moons.Almost 3,500 years ago a large gravitational shift in the twin stars caused the first and second planets to collide with each other resulting in a chain reaction that forced Palador to start a slow spiral towards one of the stars.

Sci-fi legend